The amniotic membrane (AM) is a thin fetal membrane inside of the fetal placenta that is made up of the epithelium, basement membrane, and stroma. Extracted in a sterile environment during elective cesarean sections, they are screened for communicable diseases and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for future implementation.AM can give rise to several different cell types through its pluripotent properties, making its anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic features valuable for procedures related to ocular surface reconstruction, skin application, and tissue engineering. The membrane’s application in tissue transplantation in particular is complimented by its anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and immunological characteristics.
For its use in ocular surface reconstruction, AM acts as a barrier to protect epithelium and offer pain relief from the eyelids causing friction. It’s basement membrane aids in the operation by inhibiting cell death and promoting epithelial growth via cell adhesion and migration. AM’s stroma makes use of its fetal hyaluronic acid to inhibit fibroblast growth, and decreasing inflammation by reducing cytokines.
Because the structures behind AM place emphasis on wound healing and are non-tumorigenic, they can also be applied to oncology. Its combative reaction to tumor growth can prevent nutrients and oxygen from being delivered to cancer cells, interfering with a tumor’s development. By obstructing a tumor’s angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis, as well as promoting tissue growth the amniotic membrane can be further utilized in both creating new tissue and treating tumors in an ethical and innovative manner.